Indigenous leader Dinaman Tuxé said: „Agreements like this only increase the level of violence against indigenous peoples. We must tell the EU that the signing of this free trade agreement could lead to genocide in Brazil. If they sign this agreement, the blood will flow.  If the Commission decides to separate the trade agreement from the association agreement and submit only the trade agreement to the Council for approval, that approval would require only a qualified majority of the Member States to approve it. Such a decision to split the agreement would be a technical maneuver to circumvent the legally binding vote of the Austrian parliament, which obliges the Austrian government to vote against the agreement in the Council. In addition to Austria, which strongly opposes the agreement, the Irish governments (want enforceable environmental protection), France (said: that the agreement must be in line with the Paris climate agreement and that it must not contribute to further deforestation and that imported agricultural products comply with EU health and environmental standards) , Belgium (Wallonia is concerned about the impact on its small and viable farmers, and the environmental impact of the agreement) and Luxembourg (which wants additional commitments in the fight against climate change and deforestation), as well as recently the European Parliament and the new Trade Commissioner, Valdis Domdisbrovskis, have expressed their concerns about the agreement. Even parts of the German government have expressed concern about the current deforestation agreement in the Amazon, although Germany seems determined to implement it. European farmers have also joined forces to oppose the agreement. On 4 May 2010, the European Commission decided to resume trade negotiations with MERCOSUR. After the resumption, the first round of negotiations was held in Buenos Aires from 29 June to 2 July 2010. The second round took place in Brussels from 11 to 15 October and the third round took place in Brasilia from 22 November to 7 December 2010.
In February 2011, MERCOSUR and the EU met in Paraguay and Uruguay to advance their ongoing trade negotiations. The subsequent rounds of negotiations took place in Brussels on 14 and 18 March 2011 and in Asuncion, Paraguay, on 2 and 6 May 2011. The delegations of MERCOSUR and the European Union held working meetings from 4 to 8 July 2011 as part of the BIREGIONAL NEGOTIATION COMITÉ (BNC). The Bi-regional negotiating committee (NB) was held from November 7 to 11, 2011. The eighth round was held from 12 to 16 March 2012 as part of the XXIVth meeting of the Bi-regional negotiating committee (NNCB). As part of the XXV bi-regional negotiating committee, MERCOSUR and European Union delegates met in Braslia from 22 to 26 October 2012 for the ninth round of MERCOSUR-EU negotiations. The EU-Mercosur Association Agreement sets out the conditions under which one party could sanction the other party or suspend the agreement which includes the EU-Mercosur trade agreement. Nowhere under these conditions is there any demand to meet the commitments made to deal with the climate emergency or to protect nature – two key concerns identified by critics of the trade agreement in the face of the continued destruction of the Amazon rainforest, Pantanal wetlands and other ecosystems in the Mercosur countries. MERCOSUR and the European Union have been negotiating a bi-regional free trade area since April 2000. Since 1995, relations between MERCOSUR and the EU have been inspired by the EU-MERCOSUR framework agreement, signed on 15 December 1995, which came into force on 1 July 1999. The agreement currently under negotiation consists of three components: political dialogue; Trade and economic issues and cooperation. The scope and objectives of the agreement were agreed at the first round of negotiations in April 2000 and at the Madrid Summit in May 2002.
A leaked version of the EU-Mercosur Treaty, published by Greenpeace Germany, contains no provisions to guarantee the implementation of the Paris climate agreement and leaves the door open to further deforestation in the Amazon, activists say.