May 8, 2019: Iran announces that it will no longer be bound to limit the JCPOA`s reserves of enriched uranium and heavy water and that it could resume construction of its unfinished heavy water reactor in Arak and resume enrichment in the future if the other parties to the agreement no longer receive sanctions. In late April, Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif told state broadcaster IRIB that Iran was considering leaving the NPT as one of Iran`s many options. In a letter to then-U.S. Elected Official Mike Pompeo, the U.S. State Department said the JCPOA was „not a treaty or an executive agreement and is not a signed document.“  Iran has accused the United States of failing to live up to its commitments and Europe has submitted to unilateralism by the United States. To keep the nuclear deal alive, France, Germany and the United Kingdom have set up an exchange system called INSTEX to facilitate transactions with Iran outside the US banking system, but it is only intended for food and medicine already exempt from US sanctions. 12 December 2018: The UN Security Council meets to review the UN Secretary-General`s semi-annual report on the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 2231. The report welcomes Iran`s implementation of its nuclear commitments „in the face of considerable challenges“ due to the withdrawal of the JCPOA by the United States. The report also draws attention to Iranian activities that could violate the ballistic provision of the resolution.
At the meeting, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced that the United States would work with other members of the U.N. Security Council to impose on Iran the ballistic missile restrictions set out in UN Security Council Resolution 1929. October 2, 2018: Yukiya Amano, Director General of the IAEA, says in a statement that the Agency does not take information on „face value.“ While Amano did not speak directly about Netanyahu, he said that all material, including that received by third parties, was subject to rigorous and independent evaluation. Mr. Amano said that the IAEA`s nuclear audit work should be „always impartial, factual and professional“ and that the independence of the Authority was „of the utmost importance.“ Rouhani later gave an interview on Fox News and reiterated that Iran did not want nuclear weapons. On September 10, the day before the vote, Boehner threatened to use „any instrument at our disposal to stop, slow down and delay the full implementation of this agreement,“ saying that a complaint filed by Republicans in the House against the president (which stated that the Iran Nuclear Review Agreement Act was not respected) „is an option that is very possible.“   Four months later, House Republicans abandoned their plans to sue the government over the JCPOA.  This step could be seen as a big step towards a nuclear weapon. January 29, 2019: The U.S. Intelligence Community`s annual global threat assessment states that „Iran is not currently conducting the major nuclear weapons development activities that we deem necessary to build a nuclear device.“ He added: „Iran`s continued implementation of the JCPOA has lengthened iran`s time to produce enough fissile material for a nuclear weapon, from a few months to about a year.“ In January 2016, the IAEA certified that Iran had complied with the provisional requirements of the nuclear agreement, including the offline inclusion of thousands of centrifuges, the futility of the core of the Arak heavy water reactor and the sale of low-enriched surplus uranium to Russia. The United Against Nuclear Iran (UANI) group rejected the deal and pledged to spend more than $20 million on a „national television, radio, paper and digital campaign“ against the deal.   After UANI announced its opposition, the group`s president and co-founder, non-proliferation expert Gary Samore, announced that he had concluded „in the interest of the United States“ and supported the agreement.